German orthographic full writing mode

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Alphabetic table

(Alternative picture [This page uses an embedded tengwar font. It works on Internet Explorer 4+, Firefox 3.5+, Safari 3.1+, Opera 10+, Chrome 4.0+. Firefox users with NoScript must allow @font-face.]: Alphabetic table.)

Letter Tengwa Example
A da,  Hai
Ä   jäh,  Säule
B  Bein
C [ts]   Cäsar
C [k] (like K)  cool
CH echt, acht
CH [k]  Chor
CK   Ecke
D  Dach
DSCH  Dschungel
E je,  Leute,  sie
E (before , , , )   Esche
F  Faust
G  Gold
GH  Maghreb
H  Holz
I   ist,  ein
J [1]  Jahr
K  Kohl
L  Lust
M  Milch
M (before P, B)  Stumpen
N  Nacht
NG [ŋ]  Angst
N (before T, D, K, G, Z)  und,  Angela
O so
Ö [2]  Bö
P  Pol
PH  Phase
PS   Psyche
Q (like K)
QU   Qual
R (before vowels)  Reh
R (else) er
S  Sand
SCH  Schuld
T  Tau
TH  Thron
TSCH  deutsch
TZ   ätzen
U du,  neu
Ü   Mühe
V  Vogel
W  Wein
W  zwei,  schwer
X   Axt
Y   Typ,  Yen
Z   Ziel


Mandatory rules

Apart from the above table, this German orthographic full writing mode has no mandatory rules.

Optional rules

Double letters
Double letters can be marked with an acute above , for instance , , , .
Following S
A following S can be written with a curl attached to the right, especially in endings, for instance , , , , , , .
Following J
A following J can be written with two dots above , for instance , .
The usual rules for capitalization may be observed.
Double CH , NG , SCH , TSCH
In the German orthography, a single consonant is doubled when it is preceded by a short vowel, for instance in ⟨kommen⟩. An exception to this rule are those single consonants that are written with more than one letter, for instance CH, NG etc. This is why you don’t write ⟨*kochchen⟩ – in spite of the preceding short vowel –, but ⟨kochen⟩. The corresponding tengwar to CH, NG etc. do not take more than one letter. Consequently, they may be doubled like any other single consonant in German orthography, for instance , , , as opposed to , , .


This German orthographic full writing mode is mostly based on Tolkien’s full writing mode that is attested in PE 20 Q10 – Q40 and in DTS 23, in especial on the instructions of its English orthographic use in Q10 and Q11 and on the Franconian Old High German use in Q26.

Other German orthographic modes may be designed based on Tolkien’s usage. There are two other modes that may serve as a suitable basis. However, both are less suited than the mode chosen here:


  1. Anna for J: Since the German orthography requires different signs for J and Y, the long carrier from the English orthographic full writing mode is only used for German Y. A dedicated sign for J is borrowed from DTS 71. This is the only sign of this mode that is not directly based on Q10 – Q40 or DTS 23. The letter J of German orthography does not correspond to the letter J of English orthography, but to the letter Y (consonant) of English orthography. The English letter J corresponds to German DSCH instead. This follows from the regular relations between the tengwar table and the sounds as explained in Appendix E. It is further corroborated by established use in both orthographies, e.g. English ⟨yacht⟩, ⟨year⟩, ⟨Yiddish⟩ vs. German ⟨Jacht⟩, ⟨Jahr⟩, ⟨Jiddisch⟩ and English ⟨jungle⟩, ⟨jinn⟩, ⟨junk⟩ (ship) vs. German ⟨Dschungel⟩, ⟨Dschinn⟩, ⟨Dschunke⟩.
  2. Úre with single dot above  for Ö: The single dot above is identified in Q10e, PE 20, as a palatalization mark (in its use on Vilya  for English [æ]). Its use on Vala  is attested in Q11j (for Old English [y]) and Q18 (for Greek [y] in a Latin text). Its use on Úre  is analogous. Additionally, the composition of the signs for [æ], [ø] and [y] from basic signs for [a], [o] and [u] in combination with a palatalization sign is attested in other scripts by Tolkien, for instance in PF17e and PF21a, PE 18.


  1. mach

    Yet another comment. I don’t know whether comments can be edited. I suppose they’re not.

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