English phonemic full writing mode (‘Qenya alphabet’)

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Note: This page relies on an embedded font for displaying the tengwar characters. If you cannot see the characters, there is a PDF version at your convenience: english-phonemic-full-qenya-alphabet.en.pdf.


Main consonants
/t/ series /p/ series /tʃ/ series /k/ series
Fortis stops /t/ /p/ /tʃ/ /k/
Lenis stops /d/ /b/ /dʒ/ /ɡ/
Fortis fricatives /θ/ /f/ /ʃ/ [1]
Lenis fricatives /ð/ /v/ /ʒ/ [1]
Nasals /n/ /m/ [1] /ŋ/
Approximants /ɚ/[2] /u/ /a/
Additional consonants
/r/[2] /l/ /s/ /z/
/h/ /j/[3] /w/ /ʍ/


Vowels and their modifications[4]
/e/[5]  dress /ə/[6]  comma /o/  lot /u/  foot
◌  /æ/  trap [5]  /i/  kit
◌  /aj/  price  /ej/  face  /ij/  fleece  /oj/  choice
◌  /aw/  mouth  /ow/  goat  /uw/  goose
◌  /aː/  palm [7]  /oː/  thought [7]
Isolated vowels[4]
/ʌ/  strut
Vowels and their modifications followed by Óre[4]
◌  /aɚ/  start  /eɚ/  square  /əɚ/  nurse  /oɚ/  north  /uɚ/  cure
◌  /iɚ/  near
◌  /ajɚ/  fire  /ejɚ/  layer [8]  /ojɚ/  employer
◌  /awɚ/  power  /owɚ/  blower [8]
◌ [8] [8] [7][8] [8] [7][8]


This German phonemic full writing mode requires four rules:

Nasal combinations
When a stop is preceded by the corresponding nasal[9] (/m/ + /p, b/, /n/ + /t, d, tʃ, dʒ/ or /ŋ/ + /k, ɡ/), the nasal is written with a horizontal bar above, e.g.  camp,  amber,  print,  band,  inch,  singe,  kink, or  finger.
-S ending
An S that is an ending is is written with a right Sa-rince, e.g. , , , , .
Syllabic consonants
Syllabic /n̩/, /m̩/ and /l̩/ are written with Unutixe , e.g. , , . Syllabic /r̩/ may be unmarked, e.g. .
Following /ʋ/
In the combination of consonant + /ʋ/, the /ʋ/ is written with a modified left curl , e.g. , .
Following /j/
In the combination of consonant + /j/, the /j/ may be written with two dots above , e.g. , .
Following S that is not an -S ending
In a combination of consonant + S, the S may be written with a Sa-rince schrybe. Letters that have the lúva on the left side of the telco take a left Sa-rince, e.g. , . The other letters take a right Sa-rince, e.g. , .
Nasal vowels
Nasal vowels may be written with a horizontal bar above , e.g. , .

Sources and notes

This German phonemic full writing mode is mainly based on DTS 71 (Bilbo’s contract). It is a full writing mode where the third series of the main tengwar table is a /tʃ/ series. Therefore, the use of Hwesta for /x/ follows from the regular relations between the tengwar table and the sounds as explained in Appendix E.

A phonemic tengwar mode requires a phonemic analysis. Such an analysis never goes without saying, but depends on a number of choices. These choices depend from the available means, that is, in the case of the tengwar, from the system of the tengwar.

  1. hwesta_unque_noldo
  2. oore_roomen
  3. long_carrier
  4. vowels_organization
  5. osse
  6. short_carrier
  7. short_carrier_or_vala_with_andaith
  8. long_vowels_with_r
  9. The bar above for indicating nasalization could also be used on fricatives, when a fricative is preceded by the corresponding nasal. However, while this is attested in other modes (e.g. DTS 71), it is not attested in this mode. The sequence /ns/ is either written as  Númen, Silme (e.g. Q30a inside, DTS 23 counsel) or – when final – as  Númen, spacing Sa-rince. The sequence /nʃ/ is solely attested in the word Q27c mentioned. The sequences /nf/ and /nv/ occur in a few words such as Q14 confound.

    The bar above is used in compound words as well as in single words. In a compound words such as into, which is composed of the two components in () and to (), we might expect the bar above not to be used so the two components could be more easily recognized in their own right (hypothetically, *). However, the two components are fused by using the bar above: Q11k. Similar spellings can be found in words such as Q10e endearing, Q33 intolerant, Q29a included, Q29b enclose, Q35a seventeen.

    There are very few cases where a possible bar above is not used, namely in the words Q31a branches, Q13b whitsuntide and Q39a earned. The spelling of the word branches appears to be a mistake, considering the use of the bar above in the words Q10d, Q11b inch, Q11f French, Q28 Manchester, DTS 23 wench. The spelling of the word whitsuntide might hint at a special treatment for compounds words that are composed of two lexical words. The compound words mentioned above were either composed solely of function words (into) or composed of a function word – or affix – and a lexical word (endearing, intolerant, seventeen). The compound word whitsuntide, however, is composed of two lexical words, similar to other compound words such as dragonfly or blackbird. While a special treatment for this kind of compounds might be possible, we do not have enough evidence (there is one comparable case spelled with bar above in a different mode, the word /DTS 58 Rivendell). The spelling of the word earned might hint at a special treatment for past verb forms (such as spinned, ruined, etc.). However, we have two other past verb forms spelled with bar above, Q27c mentioned and Q39b burnt.


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